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On this day...……..

27th November - 1095 – Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.

26th November - 1917 – The Manchester Guardian publishes the 1916 secret Sykes-Picot Agreement between the United Kingdom and France.

25th November - 1120 – The White Ship sinks in the English Channel, drowning William Adelin, son and heir of Henry I of England.

24th November -1542 – In the Battle of Solway Moss an English army defeats a much larger Scottish force near the River Esk in Dumfries and Galloway.

23rd November - 1499 – Pretender to the throne Perkin Warbeck is hanged for reportedly attempting to escape from the Tower of London. He had invaded England in 1497, claiming to be the lost son of King Edward IV of England.

19th November - 1794 – The United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign Jay's Treaty, which attempts to resolve some of the lingering problems left over from the American Revolutionary War.

18th November -1943 – World War II: In the Battle of Berlin four hundred and forty Royal Air Force planes bomb Berlin causing only light damage and killing 131. The RAF loses nine aircraft and 53 air crew.

17th November - 1511 – Henry VIII of England concludes the Treaty of Westminster, a pledge of mutual aid against the French, with Ferdinand II of Aragon.

16th November - 1272 – While travelling during the Ninth Crusade, Prince Edward becomes King of England upon Henry III of England's death, but he will not return to England for nearly two years to assume the throne.

13th November - 1642 – First English Civil War: In the Battle of Turnham Green the Royalist forces withdraw in the face of the Parliamentarian army and fail to take London.

12th November - 1439 – Plymouth becomes the first town incorporated by the English Parliament.

11th November - 1100 – Henry I of England marries Matilda of Scotland, the daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and a direct descendant of the Saxon king Edmund Ironside; Matilda is crowned in the same day.

10th November - 1580 – After a three-day siege, the English Army beheads over 600 people, including papal soldiers and civilians, at Dún an Óir, Ireland.

9th November - 1277 – The Treaty of Aberconwy, a humiliating settlement forced on Llywelyn ap Gruffudd by King Edward I of England, brings a temporary end to the Welsh Wars.

6th November - 1217 – The Charter of the Forest is sealed at St Paul's Cathedral, London by King Henry III, acting under the regency of William Marshall, 1st Earl of Pembroke which re-establishes for free men rights of access to the royal forest that had been eroded by William the Conqueror and his heirs.

5th November - 1688 – William III of England (William of Orange) lands with a Dutch fleet at Brixham.

4th November - 1677 – The future Mary II of England marries William, Prince of Orange; they later jointly reign as William and Mary.

3rd November - 1534 – English Parliament passes the first Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII head of the Anglican Church, supplanting the pope and the Roman Catholic Church.

2nd November - 1899 – The Boers begin their 118-day siege of British-held Ladysmith during the Second Boer War.

30th October - 1657 – In the Anglo-Spanish War Spanish forces fail to retake Jamaica at the Battle of Ocho Rios.

29th October - 1618 – English adventurer, writer, and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh is beheaded for allegedly conspiring against James I of England.

28th October - 1664 – The Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot, later to be known as the Royal Marines, is established.

27th October - 1775 – King George III expands on his Proclamation of Rebellion in the Thirteen Colonies in his speech from the throne at the opening of Parliament.

26th October - 1640 – The Treaty of Ripon is signed, restoring peace between Covenanter Scotland and King Charles.

23rd October - 1642 – The Battle of Edgehill is the first major battle of the English Civil War.

22nd October - 1707 – Four British naval vessels run aground on the Isles of Scilly because of faulty navigation. In response, the first Longitude Act is enacted in 1714.

21st October - 1097 – Crusaders led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, and Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, begin the Siege of Antioch.

20th October - 1818 – The Convention of 1818 is signed between the United States and the United Kingdom, which settles the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.

19th October - 1216 – King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.

16th October - 1869 – Girton College, Cambridge is founded, becoming England's first residential college for women.

15th October - 1066 – Following the death of Harold II at the Battle of Hastings, Edgar the Ætheling is proclaimed King of England by the Witan; he is never crowned, and concedes power to William the Conqueror two months later.

14th October - 1066 – The Norman conquest of England begins with the Battle of Hastings.

13th October - 1399 – The coronation of Henry IV of England at Westminster Abbey.

12th October - 633 – Battle of Hatfield Chase: King Edwin of Northumbria is defeated and killed by an alliance under Penda of Mercia and Cadwallon of Gwynedd.

9th October - 1799 – HMS Lutine sinks among the West Frisian Islands during a storm with the loss of 240 men and a cargo worth £1,200,000.  It was a frigate which served in both the French Navy and the Royal Navy. She was launched by the French in 1779. The ship passed to British control in 1793 and was taken into service as HMS Lutine.

8th October - 1200 – Isabella of Angoulême is crowned Queen consort of England.

7th October - 1763 – King George III issues the Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing Indigenous lands in North America north and west of the Alleghenies to white settlements.

6th October - 1762 – In the Seven Years' War the British Capture Manila from Spain and occupy it.

5th October - 1905 – The Wright brothers pilot the Wright Flyer III in a new world record flight of 24 miles in 39 minutes.

2nd October - 1470 – The Earl of Warwick's rebellion forces King Edward IV of England to flee to the Netherlands, restoring Henry VI to the throne.

1st October -1553 – Coronation of Queen Mary I of England.

30th September - 1399 – Henry IV is proclaimed king of England. Henry was the first English ruler since the Norman Conquest whose mother tongue was English rather than French.

29th September - 1364 – English forces defeat the French in Brittany, ending the War of the Breton Succession.

28th September - 1066 – William the Conqueror lands in England, beginning the Norman conquest.

25th September - 1066 – In the Battle of Stamford Bridge, Harald Hardrada, the invading King of Norway, is defeated by King Harold II of England.

24th September - 1645 – The Battle of Rowton Heath is a Parliamentarian victory over a Royalist army commanded in person by King Charles.

23rd September - 1459 – The Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Wars of the Roses, is won by the Yorkists.

22nd September - 1761 – George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz are crowned King and Queen, respectively, of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

19th September - 1435 – The Congress of Arras causes Burgundy to switch sides in the Hundred Years' War.

18th September - 1066 – The Norwegian King Harald Hardrada lands with Tostig Godwinson at the mouth of the Humber River and begins his invasion of England.

17th September - 1939 – In World War II the German submarine U-29 sinks the British aircraft carrier HMS Courageous.

16th September - 1701 – James Francis Edward Stuart, sometimes called the "Old Pretender", becomes the Jacobite claimant to the thrones of England and Scotland.

15th September - 1835 – HMS Beagle, with Charles Darwin aboard, reaches the Galápagos Islands. The ship lands at Chatham or San Cristobal, the easternmost of the archipelago.

14th September - 1752 – The British Empire adopts the Gregorian calendar, skipping eleven days.

11th September - 1297 – Scots jointly led by William Wallace and Andrew Moray defeat the English in the battle of Stirling Bridge.

10th September - 1515 – King Henry VIII’s “fixer” Thomas Wolsey is invested as a Cardinal.

9th September - 1087 – William Rufus becomes King of England, taking the title William II.

8th September - 1761 – Marriage of King George III of the United Kingdom to Duchess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

7th September - 1191 – Third Crusade: Richard I of England defeats Saladin at Arsuf in the Battle of Arsuf.

4th September - 1944 – World War II: The British 11th Armoured Division liberates the Belgian city of Antwerp.

3rd September - 1189 – Richard "the Lionheart" is crowned at Westminster.

2nd September - 1666 – The Great Fire of London breaks out and burns for three days, destroying 10,000 buildings, including Old St Paul's Cathedral.

1st September - 1532 – Lady Anne Boleyn is made Marquess of Pembroke by her fiancé, King Henry VIII of England.

31st August - 1422 – King Henry V of England dies of dysentery while in France. His son, Henry VI becomes King of England at the age of nine months.

28th August - 1640 – King Charles I's English army loses to a Scottish Covenanter force at the Battle of Newburn in the Second Bishop's War.

27th August - 1172 – Henry the Young King (son of King Henry II) and Margaret of France are crowned junior king and queen of England.

26th August - 1346 – At the Battle of Crécy, an English army easily defeats a French one twice its size.

25th August - 1537 – The oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, the Honourable Artillery Company, and the second most senior, is formed.

24nd August -1200 – King John of England marries Isabella of Angoulême in Angoulême Cathedral.

21st August - 1770 – James Cook formally claims eastern Australia for Great Britain, naming it New South Wales.

20th August - 1858 – Charles Darwin first publishes his theory of evolution through natural selection in The Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, alongside Alfred Russel Wallace's same theory.

19th August - 1745 – Prince Charles Edward Stuart raises his standard in Glenfinnan: The start of the Second Jacobite Rebellion, known as "the 45".

18th August - 1612 – The trial of the Pendle witches, one of England's most famous witch trials, begins at Lancaster Assizes.

17th August - 1549 – In the Battle of Sampford Courtenay the Prayer Book Rebellion is quashed in England.

14th August - 1592 – The first sighting of the Falkland Islands by John Davis.

13th August - 1650 – Colonel George Monck of the English Army forms Monck's Regiment of Foot, which will later become the Coldstream Guards.

12th August - 1865 – Joseph Lister, British surgeon and scientist, performs first antiseptic surgery.

11th August - 1332 – In the Battle of Dupplin Moor the Scots under Domhnall II, Earl of Mar are routed by Edward Balliol.

10th August - 991 – In the Battle of Maldon the English, led by Byrhtnoth, Ealdorman of Essex, are defeated by a band of inland-raiding Vikings near Maldon, Essex.

7th August - 1574 – The English explorer and cartographer Robert Dudley is born this day. He lives a long life dying at 75 years of age.

6th August - 1914 – In World War I two days after the United Kingdom had declared war on Germany over the German invasion of Belgium, ten German U-boats leave their base in Heligoland to attack Royal Navy warships in the North Sea.

5th August - 642 – In the Battle of Maserfield Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Northumbria.

4th August - 1327 – In the First War of Scottish Independence James Douglas leads a raid into Weardale and almost kills Edward III of England.

3rd August - 1492 – Christopher Columbus sets sail from Palos de la Frontera, Spain.

31st July - 1588 – The Spanish Armada is spotted off the coast of England.

30th July -1676 – Nathaniel Bacon issues the "Declaration of the People of Virginia", beginning Bacon's Rebellion against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.

29th July - 1588 – English naval forces under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake defeat the Spanish Armada in the Battle of Gravelines, France.

28th July - 1540 - Thomas Cromwell is executed at the order of Henry VIII of England on charges of treason. Henry marries his fifth wife, Catherine Howard.

27th July - 1214 –Philip II of France decisively defeats Imperial, English and Flemish armies in the Battle of Bouvines, effectively ending John of England's Angevin Empire.

24th July - 1304 – Wars of Scottish Independence: The all of Stirling Castle in which King Edward I of England takes the stronghold using the War Wolf (believed to be the largest trebuchet ever made).

23rd July - 1903 – The Ford Motor Company sells its first car.

22nd July - 1298 – In the Battle of Falkirk King Edward I of England and his longbowmen defeat William Wallace and his Scottish schiltrons (a compact body of troops forming a battle array) outside the town of Falkirk.

21st July - 1403 – In the Battle of Shrewsbury King Henry IV of England defeats rebels to the north of the county town of Shropshire, England.

20th July - 1189 – Richard I of England officially invested as Duke of Normandy.

17th July - 1917 – King George V issues a proclamation stating that the male line descendants of the British Royal Family will bear the surname Windsor.

16th July - 1377 – King Richard II of England is crowned.

15th July - 1207 – King John of England expels Canterbury monks for supporting Archbishop Stephen Langton.

14th July - 1916 – The start of the Battle of Delville Wood as an action within the Battle of the Somme, World War I which was to last until 3 September 1916.

13th July - 1174 – William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173–74, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Henry II of England.

10th July - 1460 – Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, defeats the king's Lancastrian forces and takes King Henry VI prisoner in the Battle of Northampton.

9th July - 1540 – King Henry VIII of England annuls his marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves.

8th July - 1663 – Charles II of England grants John Clarke a Royal charter to Rhode Island.

7th July - 1941 – The US occupation of Iceland replaces the UK's occupation.

6th July - 1483 – Richard III is crowned King of England.

3rd July - 1035 – William the Conqueror, the last successful invader of England, becomes the Duke of Normandy. He reigns until 1087.

2nd July - 1644 – The Battle of Marston Moor in which the combined forces of the English Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax and the Earl of Manchester and the Scottish Covenanters under the Earl of Leven defeated the Royalists commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and the Marquess of Newcastle.

1st July - 1837 – A system of civil registration of births, marriages and deaths is established in England and Wales.

30th June - 1860 – The 1860 Oxford evolution debate at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History takes place.

29th June - 1613 – The Globe Theatre, associated with William Shakespear, in London burns to the ground.

26th June - 1460 – Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, and Edward, Earl of March, land in England with a rebel army and march on London.

25th June - 1242 – King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence have their second daughter and name her Beatrice.

24th June - 1340 – In the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Sluys, the French fleet is almost completely destroyed by the English fleet commanded in person by King Edward III.

23rd June - 1314 – In the First War of Scottish Independence, the Battle of Bannockburn commences.

22nd June - 1893 – The Royal Navy battleship HMS Camperdown accidentally rams the British Mediterranean Fleet flagship HMS Victoria, which sinks, taking 358 crew with her, including the fleet's commander, Vice-Admiral Sir George Tryon.

19th June - 1306 – The Earl of Pembroke's army defeats Bruce's Scottish army at the Battle of Methven.

18th June - 1940 – The "Finest Hour" speech is delivered by Winston Churchill.

17th June - 1579 – Sir Francis Drake claims a land he calls Nova Albion, now California, for England.

16th June - 1487 – In the Battle of Stoke Field, King Henry VII of England defeats the leaders of a Yorkist rebellion in the final engagement of the Wars of the Roses.

15th June - 1215 – King John of England puts his seal to Magna Carta, the first bill of rights on which many countries still base their laws. The American Declaration of Independence has many similarities.

12th June - 1429 – During the Hundred Years' War, on the second day of the Battle of Jargeau, Joan of Arc leads the French army in their capture of the city and the English commander, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk.

11th June - 1509 – Henry VIII of England marries Catherine of Aragon. She was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother, Arthur.

10th June - 1921 – Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was born. We wish him a happy 99th birthday.

9th June - 1781 – George Stephenson, English engineer, known as the “Father of Railways” and inventor of "Stephen's Rocket", was born this day.

8th June - 1042 – Edward the Confessor becomes King of England. Whilst many believe it was William the Conqueror who was first to take a register of manorial interests, it was Edward. The only English King to achieve sainthood.

5th June - 1883 – The first regularly scheduled Orient Express departs Paris.

4th June - 1738 – King George III of the United Kingdom is born.

3rd June - 1665 – James Stuart, Duke of York, later to become King James II of England, defeats the Dutch fleet off the coast of Lowestoft.

2nd June - 1910 – Charles Rolls, a co-founder of Rolls-Royce Limited, becomes the first man to make a non-stop double crossing of the English Channel by plane.

1st June - 1648 – The Roundheads defeat the Cavaliers at the Battle of Maidstone in the Second English Civil War.

29th May - 1660 – Charles II is restored to the throne of England, Scotland, and Ireland after 11 years under Parliament's control.

28th May - 1588 – The Spanish Armada, with 130 ships and 30,000 men, sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal, heading for the English Channel. It will take until May 30 for all ships to leave port.

27th May - 1199 – King Richard has died childless and his brother, John, is crowned King of England.

26th May - 946 – King Edmund I of England is murdered by a thief, whom he personally attacks while celebrating St Augustine's Mass Day.

22nd May - 1455 – Start of the Wars of the Roses: At the First Battle of St Albans, Richard, Duke of York, defeats and captures King Henry VI of England.

21st May - 1894 – The Manchester Ship Canal in the United Kingdom is officially opened by Queen Victoria, who later knights its designer, Sir Edward Leader Williams.

20th May - 1217 – The Second Battle of Lincoln is fought near Lincoln, England, resulting in the defeat of Prince Louis of France by William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke.

19th May - 1499 – Catherine of Aragon is married by proxy to Arthur, Prince of Wales. Catherine is 13 and Arthur is 12.  1536 – Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII of England, is beheaded for adultery, treason, and incest.

18th May - 1152 – The future Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. He would become king two years later, after the death of his cousin once removed, King Stephen of England.

15th May - 1536 – Anne Boleyn, Henry VIII's second wife and Queen of England, stands trial in London on charges of treason, adultery, and incest; she is condemned to death by a specially selected jury.

14th May - 1264 – Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured and forced to sign the Mise of Lewes, making Simon de Montfort the effective ruler of England.

13th May - 1861 – American Civil War: Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom issues a "proclamation of neutrality", which recognizes the Confederacy as having belligerent rights.

12th May - 1191 – Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre in Cyprus. She is crowned Queen consort of England the same day.

11th May - 1812 – Prime Minister, Spencer Perceval, is assassinated by John Bellingham in the lobby of the British House of Commons.

7th May - 1945 – World War II: Last German U boat attack of the war, two freighters are sunk off the Firth of Forth, Scotland.

6th May - 1536 – King Henry VIII orders English language bibles be placed in every church. In 1539 the Great Bible would be provided for this purpose.

5th May - 1215 – Rebel barons renounce their allegiance to King John of England, part of a chain of events leading to the signing of the Magna Carta.

4th May - 1471 – Wars of the Roses: The Battle of Tewkesbury: Edward IV defeats a Lancastrian Army and kills Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales.

1st May - 1169 – Norman mercenaries land at Bannow Bay in Leinster, marking the beginning of the Norman invasion of Ireland.

30th April -1513 – Edmund de la Pole, Yorkist pretender to the English throne, is executed on the orders of Henry VIII.

29th April - 1770 – James Cook arrives in Australia at Botany Bay, which he names.

28th April - 1503 – The Battle of Cerignola is fought between the French and Spanish armies. It is noted as one of the first European battles in history won by small arms fire using gunpowder.

27th April - 1296 – First War of Scottish Independence: John Balliol's Scottish army is defeated by an English army commanded by John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, at the Battle of Dunbar.